Photosynthesis. First photosynthetic bacteria appear.
2.4 – 2.3 billion years ago
Earliest evidence (from rocks) that oxygen was in the atmosphere
125 million years ago
Flowering plants appear
252 - 65.8 million years
Age of dinosaurs
70 - 40 million years ago
possible rose fossils
35 million years
rose fossils in northern hemisphere:
America, Alaska, Mexico,
Yugoslavia, Germany, Norway, North Africa.
None south of the equator.
5 - 7 million years ago
Ancient civilisations grew roses
5,000 years ago
Roses used and cultivated by Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Phoenicians
Grown for the flowers and perfume and also used in food and medicines.
These antique roses mainly flowered once a year.
Some references to roses in ancient history
Oldest (currently) evidence of a rose depicted in a painting
12 century BC
Persian empire: Rosa gallica widely distributed over western and southern Europe and western Asia
Rosa damascena (assumed to be a derivative of R gallica).
Later, about 50BC, Romans discovered R. damascena semperflorens (“Autumn Damask”). Important because it was a rose that repeat flowered twice a year.
Human conquests and trade facilitated the spread of roses.
356 - 323BC
e.g. Alexander the Great's conquests helped the spread of roses throughout his empire
Theophrastus(a Greek scientist) categorised hundreds of roses known at the time
on the other side of the world.
China, beside building walls, flying kites, inventing gunpowder and cooking noodles, had an extensive interest in roses.
Confucius wrote about the roses in the Imperial gardens, and that the emperor's library contained hundreds of books on roses.
Han dynasty (206BC – 220AD)
China acts to limit rose gardens encroaching onto agricultural lands.
Back in western civilisation ...
The end of the Roman empire brought a period of instability limiting the advance of gardens and roses for a while.
End of the Roman Empire in the west / Beginning of Middle Ages
Influences on rose developements in Europe
England - "War of the Roses"
House of Lancaster (red rose) vs House of York (white rose)
(R gallica "Officianalis" vs R alba "Maxima".) Oldest living rose planted at Hildesheim Cathedral, Germany. (It's a R. canina.)
Roses from the East including R foetida(yellow) and Damasks
Other significant roses of the time:
R centifolia (cabbage rose), R centifolia muscoa (moss),R moschata (musk) and others.
Introduction of China roses to Europe
Noisette roses - originating from Charleston, South Caroline USA
Bourbon roses - originating from a seedling from the island of Bourbon - now called Reunion - in the Indian Ocean.
A lot of hybridising gave rise to a profusion of new repeat flowering classes. These were generally grouped under Hybrid Perpetuals.
Introduction of tea roses.
More recent times.
'La France' begins the rise of the mighty Hybrid Tea.
Some important other classes:
polyantha, floribunda, shrub
Alister Clark creates am imposing range of Australian bred roses.
There were others (e.g. Reithmuller), but Alister Clark is the best known.
WW11 interrupted breeding and development.
1945 after the war
The new postwar markets were mainly florist and landscape, resulting in many new hybrid teas and floribundas.
Miniature roses were also a popular trend.
David Austin (- English roses).
A popular group concentrating on garden qualities of the rose.
Even more recent times.
Man walks on the moon.
'Rosetta'- mothership for the comet 67P/C-G landing.
Many international and local breeders introducing many roses to satisfy trends in the market.
Diversity in colour, perfume and growth, hardiness, ease of growth, etc..
Markets include florist, landscape and garden, with a significant emphasis on roses suitable for the smaller garden.
4 billion years from now
Our galaxy collides with the galaxy "Andromeda".
New neighbours. They will like roses too.